Stephen Smalley asserts that "The Spirit-Paraclete ... in John's Gospel is understood as personal, indeed, as a person."

Marianne Meye Thompson, The God of the Gospel of John
"Descriptions of the Spirit-Paraclete in John have raised the question of the nature or reality of the Spirit itself. Two primary conceptions of the Spirit, representing nearly opposite ends on the spectrum of opinion, have been suggested by interpreters of the Fourth Gospel. On the one hand, the Spirit has been understood, along with "wisdom" and "word," as a way of speaking of God's activity or as the manifestation of a particular divine activity or power. Exploiting the play on the words "spirit" and "breath" (ruach in the Hebrew, pneuma in the Greek), this model conceives of the Spirit on analogy with God's power, wisdom, or breath. To speak of the presence of the Spirit is to speak of the presence of God, since "spirit" connotes the means of God's power or activity in the world. One might then be able to draw some conclusions about how God worked, or in what ways God's presence was manifested and experienced, or perhaps to point to a specific aspect of God's work. In a summary of this review, George Johnston writes:

The figurative speech in all these passages should be noted: spirit like water is a cleansing agent (1:33); spirit like breath is a vital element (20:22); spirit as teaching, guiding, defending, is a divine power (chs. 14-16). Unifying them all is surely the concept of a Christlike power that is finally in the control of God, the heavenly Father.... The Gospel material is more readily aligned with ideas of supernatural powers than with the Christian doctrine of the Third Person of the Blessed Trinity.

On the other hand, the Spirit has also been conceived of as a "personal divine being distinct from and in some degree independent of God." For example, Stephen Smalley asserts that "the Spirit-Paraclete ... in John's Gospel is understood as personal, indeed, as a person." A substantial impetus for such an understanding of the Spirit has been provided by analysis of various figures proposed as patterns for the portrayal of the Johannine Paraclete, including particularly prophetic figures, such as Elijah and Elisha, and angelic figures, such as the archangel Michael or the interpreting angel of apocalyptic. On this model the Spirit-Paraclete can be conceived of something like an angel, a quasi-independent figure summoned by God to carry out particular divine purposes or to complete a certain mission in the world. One can still draw conclusions about God's work in the world, but the nature of God's presence within the world, and especially the reality of the Spirit itself and ultimately the identity of God, become more complex since "the Spirit" cannot simply be equated with God's power of God's own presence.

Most intriguing is the way in which these two different ways of conceiving the role or identity of the Spirit find their support in different portions of the Gospel. The terms Paraclete, Spirit of Truth, and Holy Spirit appear almost exclusively in the so-called Farewell Discourses (chs. 14-17). In the narrative portions of the Gospels (chs. 1-12, 18-21), only the simple "Spirit" appears. Moreover, the differences in terminology correspond to differences in the primary functions allotted to the "spirit" and the "Paraclete." As W.G. Kummel comments, "The effects of the Spirit and of the Paraclete are not altogether described as the same; cf., on the one hand, "to be born of water and Spirit" and the Spirit as the source of life in the believer, and on the other hand, teaching, recalling, testifying, and convicting as functions of the Paraclete." Thus in the narrative portions of the Gospel, Jesus is said to be the one who will baptize "with" or "by" the Holy Spirit, where the Spirit, described on analogy with "water," is conceived of virtually as a substance poured out upon believers. One must be "born of the Spirit" (3:5-6), equivalent to being born "from above," through the activity of God. God brings life through the power of the Spirit, a thought certainly in keeping both with the biblical tradition of the life-giving Spirit, such as Ezekiel's prophecy of the "dry bones" brought to life by the Spirit (Ezek. 37:14), and with the Johannine conception of the Spirit as a life-giving force (3:6; 6:63). These and other passages in John have suggested that the Holy Spirit is God's power, particularly manifested as God's life-giving power.

The passages that provide the strongest evidence for conceiving of the Spirit as a distinct figure, an independent agent or actor, are all found in the Farewell Discourses, chapters 14-17 of the Gospel (14:16-17, 26; 15:26; 16:7, 3). What is peculiar to this group of passages is not only their location in those discourses, but that here, and here alone, is the Spirit called the "Paraclete." The functions attributed to the Paraclete differ markedly from those attributed to the Spirit elsewhere in John. The dominant description of the Spirit-Paraclete is as a teacher and guide who will be with believers. Thus the Spirit teaches (14:26; cf. 1 John 2:27); reminds disciples of Jesus' words (14:26); testifies on Jesus' behalf (15:26); accuses or convicts the world (16:8-11); and speaks, declares, and glorifies Jesus (16:13). The Spirit is also described as another paraclete, who in some way can be set alongside Jesus. Moreover, the Spirit is "sent" by God (14:26; 15:26; 16:7), language that calls to mind the sending of prophets and of course of Jesus himself. The Spirit "comes from" God (15:26; 16:7, 13). The Spirit can be "received" or "welcomed," as Jesus was received; believers are said to "know" and, most peculiarly, to "see" the Spirit (14:16-17).

All in all, the descriptions of the Spirit and the Spirit's activities in the Farewell Discourses comport well with a picture of the Spirit as a distinct figure who is sent, like the prophets and angels, to human beings as a divine messenger, and so who can be said to "come" in the name of the Lord, and to be welcomed or rejected by them. The Spirit is not so much the agency or manifestation of God's presence but God's present agent. Hence, God would not be present as Spirit but perhaps in or even with the Spirit, in much the same way that God is present in a prophetic or angelic messenger."

Marianne Meye Thompson, The God of the Gospel of John
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (October 2001), pp. 146-149

"Parakletos ... the Isaian portrayal of God as a mother who comforts her children."- Carol Frances Jegen

Carol Frances Jegen, Mary according to Women
"John's gospel draws significant parallels between the sending of the Spirit and the sending of the disciples. The functions assigned to the Paraclete are precisely the functions assigned by the gospel to the disciples. We have no exact synonym for the term Parakletos as used by John. The word really has no Hebrew equivalent, although both John and Luke are clearly influenced by the Isaian portrayal of God as a mother who comforts her children. The Greek term common to John's milieu had a variety of distinct meanings, all of which John probably intended to evoke. Helpful insight can be gained by examining briefly key passages in the Farewell Discourses of the fourth gospel, which contains five Paraclete sayings (14:15-17; 14:25-26; 15:26-27; 16:7-11; 16:12-14). The Johannine Paraclete is described as Advocate/ Counselor, Intercessor/ Mediator, Comforter/ Consoler, and Exhorter/ Stimulator/ Life-Giver.


In ancient Israel a judge, sometimes the king, used to act as an attorney endeavouring to bring justice to the oppressed. In Isaiah, we saw Yahweh as Advocate for Israel; in John, the Paraclete takes on that role in two ways. First, the Paraclete pleads Jesus' case, defending him and acting as a witness at his trial (John 14:16). The defense's task is to testify that Jesus is the true victor. The Paraclete also serves as a prosecuting attorney who puts the world on trial, convicting it of sin (16:7-11).

During Jesus' life, his very presence had highlighted the contrast between his words and deeds and the dismal reality of a sinful world. When he leaves, the Paraclete will continue the critical ministry of convicting the world of its sin, its self-righteousness, and its unbelief or, as John puts it, "sin, righteousness, and judgment"—three basic motifs of prophetic proclamation.


This Paraclete saying deals with Jesus' approaching death and the passing on of his teaching mission through the Paraclete:

These things I have spoken to you, while abiding with you.
But the paraclete, the holy spirit, whom the father will send
in my name, will teach you all things, and bring your
remembrance all that I have said to you.

Because the Paraclete will pass on to them the message of Jesus and explain to them what Jesus meant, his disciples will be able to perceive more than was possible for Jesus' contemporaries. Indeed, the Paraclete will empower disciples faithfully to carry on their own ministry as true witness/prophets (15:26-27).

The Paraclete will also disclose to them what is to come, another prophetic aspect of the Paraclete's role. Jesus' spirit engages in no rote passing on of Jesus' message, however. Rather, the nature of prophecy compels the Paraclete to alter, amend, and even authorize "new words of Jesus for new and unprecedented times." This is strong scriptural reassurance, backing the quest of today's feminist theologians for "new words of Jesus" for our times.


During the Farewell Discourse, Jesus told his disciples that he was leaving them, that they must witness to him, and that they also would be persecuted. Small wonder they were discouraged. But Jesus reassures them; he will send a comforter to strengthen them. The Paraclete will take his place in their lives, will live in them, and will help carry out their mission of witnessing to and confronting an imperfect world. As should be quite clear by now, this promise of comfort never implies an end to the suffering inherent in the prophetic task. Rather, the comfort is that the disciples are not left alone; the Spirit-Paraclete will be working within and through them, enabling them to know all truth and empowering them to do far greater works than even Jesus did (John 14:12). This promise of the disciple being able to outshine the leader is particularly characteristic of the Johannine gospel...


John concludes his gospel with a dynamic outward impulse: the young Christian community is not to look backward but to move into the future. In a certain sense, the community is living in God's future even now. Jesus himself was sent to reveal God—the Comforter-God who cares for the poor and sends forth prophets to carry on God's mission. In John's gospel, Jesus too sends forth disciples. Now disciples are sent to continue God's mission of bestowing comfort/salvation to all in the name of Jesus Christ.

The community's stance toward the world, then, is one of outreach and responsibility. The Spirit-Comforter is present as stimulator and encourager, acting as source of life to energize the community to perform this mission. The Spirit, through whom Jesus is present in the community, abides with all disciples, bringing peace, joy, a sense of unity, reconciliation, understanding of the truth, and prophetic challenge to the world. Because of this life-giving presence, the Spirit-Paraclete is creative of community. Because of the presence of the comforter, the entire community—and each person within the community—is capable of greater things than they ever dared hope or imagine. And because of the presence of the Comforter—the strengthening, enlivening, animating presence of the Comforter—the community, and each member of the community, is called to bring that vision of new possibilities to life within a greater world."

Carol Frances Jegen, Mary according to Women
Novalis (Jun 27 2002) pp. 57-60

An awakening to all of them, a view that by reason of Jesus choice of the Paraclete is long due.

August 31, 2017

Dear Jagbir: In my early days of seeking I found the gnostics and we were meditating and merging. When I came to Sahaja, hearing Shri Mataji I heard her and She was just saying the same: it need to be born in you. Somehow during my stay in Sahaja it changed and became pray instead or merge and some information I was giving while I was conducting classes for newcomers I started realizing I was lying to them or at least not being truthfull, I felt that I was going back instead of forward. So, thank you for making this point so important.

But there is nothing more important that you pointing us to the PRIMORDIAL MOTHER.

Thank you, very much.

Yahoo forum post # 18657

September 2, 2017

Dear Pamela and all,

Thank you for this initial realization that the PRIMORDIAL MOTHER should become the focus of our life and meditation rather than Shri Mataji, all the more since She passed away 2011. And Shri Mataji has always talked about the DIVINE MOTHER within, our own individual MOTHER who is one and the same for all. And SHE exists.

The main reason for bringing The Case Of The Double Talk (which are a series actually) is to give evidence of HER existence. Without this evidence, you will always continue with Shri Mataji (images, talks, mantras etc.) ............................................ and that is why SYs cannot move beyond. Shri Mataji is all they knew and followed for years/decades. Shri Mataji was and still is as real as it gets ....................... and that 'comfort' continues even though She has passed away

Unfortunately, Shri Mataji has been today reduced to a mere kundalini/subtle system guru and all claims of divinity/religious ideas redacted and denied - OFFICIALLY! The forcing of Risperidone, against Her express wishes is the poisoned pawn that signaled the beginning of the end for the organization called Sahaja Yoga. (i will not get into details but want to just make this clear - the end of this organization was necessary since its members never wanted to tell the Truth, and we have all experienced that insincerity.)

But Shri Mataji was the full and final incarnation of the PRIMORDIAL MOTHER and arrived at the most crucial time in the history - as the promised Paraclete who completes Jesus' Good News of the Resurrection, Last Judgment, and life eternal in the Kingdom of God.

However, Shri Mataji's arrival is far more than meets the eye .................... it should actually be "far more than meets the mind"! It is so: Since life eternal and entrance into the Kingdom of God solely rests upon Jesus, His declaration that the Paraclete, after completing Her mission, will remain within for all times has one overriding caveat - the Paraclete/Holy Spirit without will be the HOLY SPIRIT within for all times. Any Jew, Christian, Muslim, Hindu, Buddhist, Sikh will have to unconditionally accept HER. His promised Paraclete without is now the HOLY SPIRIT within. All are awakened to the PRIMORDIAL MOTHER ....................................... and SHE triumphs again after millennia of being reduced to a footnote in history.

The return to the PRIMORDIAL MOTHER, both within and without, will commence the most comforting and vibrant and joyful of journeys if you are spiritually inclined. There is nothing comparable to this new awakening to HER presence within, HER presence without. Even a drop of dew on a blade of grass will bring comfort, peace, and joy ........................... and the infinite experiences of eternal life in this infinite Universe lies ahead.

Thus I have to give evidence of HER existence so that this initial awakening continues through our entire lives ............................... an awakening to all other seekers hopefully, a view that by reason of Jesus choice of the feminine Paraclete is long due.

Two thousand years ago the Savior single-handedly defied a violent, misogynistic, patriarchal society and held women to high esteem. They responded with greater faith and fearlessness than their male counterparts. They will, again, respond with the coming awakening! Amen.


Yahoo forum post # 18660

The fulfillment of the promised divine eschatological instruction
“The original meaning of the word ‘apocalypse’, derived from the Greek apokalypsis, is in fact not the cataclysmic end of the world, but an ‘unveiling’, or ‘revelation’, a means whereby one gains insight into the present.” (Kovacs, 2013, 2) An apocalypse (Greek: apokalypsis meaning “an uncovering”) is in religious contexts knowledge or revelation, a disclosure of something hidden, “a vision of heavenly secrets that can make sense of earthly realities.” (Ehrman 2014, 59)
Shri Mataji
Shri Mataji Nirmala Devi (1923-2011) was Christian by birth, Hindu by marriage, and Paraclete by duty.
“The Paraclete will come (15:26; 16:7, 8, 13) as Jesus has come into the world (5:43; 16:28; 18:37)... The Paraclete will take the things of Christ (the things that are mine, ek tou emou) and declare them (16:14-15). Bishop Fison describes the humility of the Spirit, 'The true Holy Spirit of God does not advertise Herself: She effaces Herself and advertises Jesus.' ...
It is by the outgoing activity of the Spirit that the divine life communicates itself in and to the creation. The Spirit is God-in-relations. The Paraclete is the divine self-expression which will be and abide with you, and be in you (14:16-17). The Spirit's work is described in terms of utterance: teach you, didasko (14:26), remind you, hypomimnesko (14:26), testify, martyro (15:26), prove wrong, elencho (16:8), guide into truth, hodego (16:13), speak, laleo (16:13, twice), declare, anangello (16:13, 14, 15). The johannine terms describe verbal actions which intend a response in others who will receive (lambano), see (theoreo), or know (ginosko) the Spirit. Such speech-terms link the Spirit with the divine Word. The Spirit's initiatives imply God's personal engagement with humanity. The Spirit comes to be with others; the teaching Spirit implies a community of learners; forgetful persons need a prompter to remind them; one testifies expecting heed to be paid; one speaks and declares in order to be heard. The articulate Spirit is the correlative of the listening, Spirit-informed community.
The final Paraclete passage closes with a threefold repetition of the verb she will declare (anangello), 16:13-15. The Spirit will declare the things that are to come (v.13), and she will declare what is Christ's (vv. 14, 15). The things of Christ are a message that must be heralded...
The intention of the Spirit of truth is the restoration of an alienated, deceived humanity... The teaching role of the Paraclete tends to be remembered as a major emphasis of the Farewell Discourses, yet only 14:26 says She will teach you all things. (Teaching is, however, implied when 16:13-15 says that the Spirit will guide you into all truth, and will speak and declare.) Franz Mussner remarks that the word used in 14:26, didaskein, "means literally 'teach, instruct,' but in John it nearly always means to reveal.” (Stevick 2011, 292-7)
Stephen E. Witmer, Divine instruction in Early Christianity   
F. B. Meyer, Love to the Utmost Robert Kysar, John, the Maverick Gospel 
Danny Mahar, Aramaic Made EZ Lucy Reid, She Changes Everything
David Fleer, Preaching John's Gospel: The World It Imagines Berard L. Marthaler, The Creed: The Apostolic Faith in Contemporary Theology
George Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament In Spirit and Truth, Benny Thettayil
Jesus and His Own: A Commentary on John 13-17 Marianne Meye Thompson, The God of the Gospel of John
Eric Eve, The Jewish Context of Jesus' Miracles D. R. Sadananda, The Johannine Exegesis of God: an exploration into the Johannine understanding of God
Michael Welker, God the Spirit Georg Strecker, Theology of the New Testament
Tricia Gates Brown, Spirit in the writings of John Michael Welker, The work of the Spirit: pneumatology and Pentecostalism
Robert Kysar, Voyages with John: Charting the Fourth Gospel John F. Moloney, The Gospel of John
Harvey Cox, The Future of Faith Robert Kysar, John
Robert E. Picirilli, The Randall House Bible Commentary George Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament 
“The teaching of the Paraclete, as the continuation of Jesus' teaching, must also be understood as the fulfillment of the promise of eschatological divine instruction.”
Stephen E. Witmer, Divine instruction in Early Christianity

“Jesus therefore predicts that God will later send a human being to Earth to take up the role defined by John .i.e. to be a prophet who hears God's words and repeats his message to man.”
M. Bucaille, The Bible, the Qur'n, and Science

“And when Jesus foreannounced another Comforter, He must have intended a Person as distinct and helpful as He had been.”
F. B. Meyer, Love to the Utmost

“The Paraclete has a twofold function: to communicate Christ to believers and, to put the world on trial.”
Robert Kysar, John The Meverick Gospel

“But She—the Spirit, the Paraclete...—will teach you everything.”
Danny Mahar, Aramaic Made EZ)

“Grammatical nonsense but evidence of the theological desire to defeminize the Divine.”
Lucy Reid, She Changes Everything

“The functions of the Paraclete spelled out in verses 13-15... are all acts of open and bold speaking in the highest degree.”
David Fleer, Preaching John's Gospel

“The reaction of the world to the Paraclete will be much the same as the world's reaction was to Jesus.”
Berard L. Marthaler, The Creed: The Apostolic Faith in Contemporary Theology

Bultmann calls the “coming of the Redeemer an 'eschatological event,' 'the turning-point of the ages.”
G. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament

“The Paraclete equated with the Holy Spirit, is the only mediator of the word of the exalted Christ.”
Benny Thettayil, In Spirit and Truth

“The divine Paraclete, and no lessor agency, must show the world how wrong it was about him who was in the right.”
Daniel B. Stevick , Jesus and His Own: A Commentary on John 13-17

Stephen Smalley asserts that “The Spirit-Paraclete ... in John's Gospel is understood as personal, indeed, as a person.”
Marianne Thompson, The God of the Gospel of John

“The Messiah will come and the great age of salvation will dawn (for the pious).”
Eric Eve, The Jewish context of Jesus' Miracles

“The remembrance is to relive and re-enact the Christ event, to bring about new eschatological decision in time and space.”
Daniel Rathnakara Sadananda, The Johannine Exegesis of God

“The Spirit acts in such an international situation as the revealer of 'judgment' on the powers that rule the world.”
Michael Welker, God the Spirit

The Paraclete's “Appearance means that sin, righteousness, and judgment will be revealed.”
Georg Strecker, Theology of the New Testament

“While the Spirit-Paraclete is the true broker, the brokers they rely on are impostors.”
T. G. Brown, Spirit in the writings of John

“The pneumatological activity ... of the Paraclete ... may most helpfully be considered in terms of the salvific working of the hidden Spirit.”
Michael Welker, The work of the Spirit

“The pneuma is the peculiar power by which the word becomes the words of eternal life.”
Robert Kysar, Voyages with John

“The gift of peace, therefore, is intimately associated with the gift of the Spirit-Paraclete.”
Francis J. Moloney, The Gospel of John

“This utopian hope, even when modestly expressed, links Jesus and the prophets to a much wider history of human longing.”
Harvey Cox, The Future of Faith

“Because of the presence of the Paraclete in the life of the believer, the blessings of the end-times—the eschaton—are already present.”
Robert Kysar, John

“They are going, by the Holy Spirit's power, to be part of the greatest miracle of all, bringing men to salvation.”
R. Picirilli, The Randall House Bible Commentary

“The Kingdom of God stands as a comprehensive term for all that the messianic salvation included... is something to be sought here and now (Mt. 6:33) and to be received as children receive a gift (Mk. 10:15 = Lk. 18:16-17).”
G. Ladd, A Theology of the New Testament

“But today is the day I declare that I am the one who has to save the humanity. I declare I am the one who is Adishakti, who is the Mother of all the Mothers, who is the Primordial Mother, the Shakti, the desire of God, who has incarnated on this Earth to give its meaning to itself; to this creation, to human beings and I am sure through My Love and patience and My powers I am going to achieve it.

I was the one who was born again and again. But now in my complete form and complete powers I have come on this Earth not only for salvation of human beings, not only for their emancipation, but for granting them the Kingdom of Heaven, the joy, the bliss that your Father wants to bestow upon you.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh
December 2, 1979—London, UK

“I am the one about which Christ has talked... I am the Holy Spirit who has incarnated on this Earth for your realization.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh
New York, USA—September 30, 1981

“Tell all the nations and tell all the people all over the Great Message that the Time of Resurrection is here. Now, at this time, and that you are capable of doing it.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh
Cowley Manor Seminar, UK—July 31, 1982

“This is the transformation that has worked, of which Christ has talked, Mohammed Sahib has talked, everybody has talked about this particular time when people will get transformed.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
Chistmas Puja, Ganapatipule, India—25 December 1997

“The Resurrection of Christ has to now be collective Resurrection. This is what is Mahayoga. Has to be the collective Resurrection.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
Easter Puja, London, UK—11 April 1982

“Today, Sahaja Yaga has reached the state of Mahayoga, which is en-masse evolution manifested through it. It is this day’s Yuga Dharma. It is the way the Last Judgement is taking place. Announce it to all the seekers of truth, to all the nations of the world, so that nobody misses the blessings of the divine to achieve their meaning, their absolute, their Spirit.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
MAHA AVATAR, ISSUE 1, JUL-SEP 1980 (Date and place unknown)

“The main thing that one has to understand is that the time has come for you to get all that is promised in the scriptures, not only in the Bible but all all the scriptures of the world. The time has come today that you have to become a Christian, a Brahmin, a Pir, through your Kundalini awakening only. There is no other way. And that your Last Judgment is also now.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi

“You see, the Holy Ghost is the Mother. When they say about the Holy Ghost, She is the Mother... Now, the principle of Mother is in every, every scripture — has to be there. Now, the Mother's character is that She is the one who is the Womb, She is the one who is the Mother Earth, and She is the one who nourishes you. She nourishes us. You know that. And this Feminine thing in every human being resides as this Kundalini.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
Radio Interview Oct 01 1983—Santa Cruz, USA

“It is the Mother who can awaken the Kundalini, and that the Kundalini is your own Mother. She is the Holy Ghost within you, the Adi Shakti, and She Herself achieves your transformation. By any talk, by any rationality, by anything, it cannot be done.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi

“She is your pure Mother. She is the Mother who is individually with you. Forget your concepts, and forget your identifications. Please try to understand She is your Mother, waiting for ages to give you your real birth. She is the Holy Ghost within you. She has to give you your realization, and She's just waiting and waiting to do it.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
Public Program Mar 22 1981—Sydney, Australia

“The Kundalini is your own mother; your individual mother. And She has tape-recorded all your past and your aspirations. Everything! And She rises because She wants to give you your second birth. But She is your individual mother. You don't share Her with anybody else. Yours is a different, somebody else's is different because the tape-recording is different. We say She is the reflection of the Adi Shakti who is called as Holy Ghost in the Bible.”

THE MOTHER: Messiah-Paraclete-Ruh-Devi
Press Conference July 08 1999—London, UK

The Great Goddess is both wholly transcendent and fully immanent: beyond space and time, she is yet embodied within all existent beings; without form as pure, infinite consciousness (cit) ... She is the universal, cosmic energy known as Sakti, and the psychophysical, guiding force designated as the Kundalini (Serpent Power) resident within each individual. She is eternal, without origin or birth, yet she is born in this world in age after age, to support those who seek her assistance. Precisely to provide comfort and guidance to her devotees, she presents herself in the Devi Gita to reveal the truths leading both to worldly happiness and to the supreme spiritual goals: dwelling in her Jeweled Island and mergence into her own perfect being.” (Brown, 1998, 2)

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