"This makes it doubly clear that the reference of the verse is to two periods of time, not to two worlds."
"When we trace this word [aion] in the new Testament, we discover that in the course of God's redemptive purpose, there are two ages which are frequently called 'This Age' [The past sending of Jesus by the Father/God Almighty]* and 'The Age to Come.' [The present sending of the Paraclete by Jesus through the Father/God Almighty.]* In Matthew 12:32 the A.V. reads: 'Whosoever speaketh a word against the Son of man , it shall be forgiven him: but whosoever speaketh against the Holy Ghost, it shall not be forgiven him, neither in this world, neither in the world to come.' However, our Lord is not speaking of two worlds but of two ages. The entire sweep of man's existence is set forth in terms of this age and the age to come. The Greek word used is not kosmos but alon, age. It is unfortunate that our older English Bibles obscure this important fact; but it is correctly rendered in the R.S.V. Blasphemy against the Son of Man will be forgiven, but blasphemy against the Holy Spirit will never be forgiven; and the sweep of 'never' is two periods of time; This Age, and that which is to come.
In Ephesians 1:21, Paul describes the exaltation of Christ 'far above all rule and authority and power and dominion, and above every name that is named, not only in this age but also in that which is to come.' Here again the A.V.'s translation 'world' is inaccurate. Paul does not have in mind two worlds but two ages. His word is not kosmos but aion. There is no thought of two orders of society but of two periods of time.
A slight variant of this expression is found in Mark 10:29, 30."Jesus said, 'Truly, I say to you, there is no one who has left house or brethren or sisters or mother or father or children or lands, for my sake and for the gospel, who will not receive a hundredfold now in this time, houses and brothers and sisters and mothers and children and lands, with persecution, and in the age to come eternal life.' In the second half of the verse, we find again the word aion; and the translation 'in the world to come' does not accurately represent the idea. In the first half of the verse, the word 'time' (kairos) appears instead of aion or age. This makes it doubly clear that the reference of the verse is to two periods of time, not to two worlds. In this time, in This Age, we are to expect hostility to the Gospel. In The Age to Come, those who have followed Christ will be freed from all opposition and sufferings and will enjoy eternal life."
George Eldon Ladd, The Gospel of the Kingdom
Wm. B. Eerdmans Publishing Company (March 13, 1990) p. 26-7
* emphasis ours
The Spirit is linked with Christ in a number of clear ways in the Fourth Gospel.
They both give life. Jesus has come that we may have life: all who come to him receive life. »53 Yet it is clearly the Holy Spirit who gives life. »54 They both teach. »55 Indeed, they are both the Divine Teacher. »56
They are both described as the "Holy One" »57, who expose sin »58 and the world's lack of righteousness, »59 and who bring the world to judgment. »60
However, the two activities which most closely relate the Spirit with Jesus relate to "truth" and "Witness."
Just as Jesus is the truth, »61 so the Holy Spirit is the Spirit of truth, »62 who will teach the disciples the truth. »63 This truth, according to 16:14, is truth which comes from Jesus and has the purpose of glorifying Jesus. It is truth which also comes from the Father, and will be focused on Christ, since the Spirit's work will be to testify about Christ »64."
Web (December 20, 2014
53. eternal life — John 3v36; bread of life - 6v35; resurrection life - 11v25
54. John 3v5, especially 6v63
55. Jesus is the teacher in the Fourth Gospel (John 1v39, 3v2, 11v28, 13v13-14, 20v16) — just like the paraclete (John 14v26, 16v13)
56. Jesus is clearly no ordinary teacher — but someone from God (e.g. John 3v11-13) — like the paraclete
57. Jesus - John 6v69, Spirit - 14v26
58. Jesus - John 9v39, Spirit - 16v8
59. Jesus - John 7v7, Spirit - 16v8
60. Jesus - John 8v49-50, Spirit - 16v8; the Spirit seeks Jesus' glory and judges, but then so does the Father (also 9v39)
61. John 14v6
62. John 14v17, 15v26, 16v13
63. John 16v13
64. John 15v26
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